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Animal Alternatives Information

Resources for finding animal alternatives in laboratory research and educational settings.

Searching Tips

Inserting an asterisk (*) at the end of a root word allows for truncation in most databases.  Truncation can be used when you want to search for all terms that begin with a given text string.  For example, if you search mimic* most search engines will retrieve words such as mimic, mimics, mimicing, etc.

Enclosing a words in quotation marks will limit the search to that phrase (rather than co-occurrences of those words in different parts of the text) in most databases.  For example, “animal alternatives” will only search for that phrase and  not retrieve citations where those words occur separately.

Boolean logic - Using the "AND" operator between terms retrieves documents containing both terms. "OR" retrieves documents containing either term. "NOT" excludes the retrieval of terms from your search. Use "NOT" with caution.

Replace

"animal testing alternatives"
artificial
vitro
culture*
tissue*
cell*
organ*
explants*
computer*
simulat*
image*
interactive
manikin*
model*
dummies
alternative*
cadaver*
clon*
“virtual reality”
non-animal/nonanimal
invertebrate*
fish*
arachn*
insect*
mollusk*
cephalopod*
earthworm*
amphipod*
macroinvertebrate*
sea urchin*

Reduce/Refine

"animal use alternatives"
"animal welfare"
analges*
anesth*
anaesth*
painkiller(s)
tranquiliz*
sedat*
neuroleptic*
anxiolytic*
euthan*
technique*
method*
procedure*
monitor*
evaluat*
supervis*
device*
restrain*
immobil*
restrict*
“positive reinforcement”
animal training
hous*
facilit*
cage(s)
pain
reduc*
refin*
alternative(s)