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Evidence-based Medicine to Evidence-based Public Health

Two integrated frameworks demonstrating how to translate evidence-based practice (a clinical approach) to evidence-based public health.


Evidence-based Public Health is defined as the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the care of communities and populations in the domain of health protection, disease prevention, health maintenance and improvement (health promotion).  It is the process of systematically finding, appraising, and using contemporaneous research findings as the basis for decisions in public health."  (Jenicek, M. (1997)).


EBP/EBPH Framework

EBP/EBPH Framework

Research Question or Hypothesis: An example

Stating a well-framed question or hypothesis is essential.  One cannot expect to run a high-quality search if the key concepts are not clearly stated.

The examples below use the P I C O framework to help. 


A Type 1 question would be used when a stating a problem about a health problem that is beginning to surface.


electronic cigarettes


      none              none        smoking prevention

Type 1:  Electronic cigarettes are harmful and should not be promoted among youth.

Type 2 might be to address interventions that have been created in response to type 1 questions.


electronic cigarettes




       none       smoking prevention

Type 2:  Are internet-based interventions effective in preventing electronic cigarette smoking among youth?

Type 3 questions might address assessed interventions and which would be most effective for implementation.

P               I                          C           O

electronic cigarettes


Facebook Instagram smoking prevention

Type 3:  How effective is social media, i.e. Facebook and InstaGram, in promoting smoking prevention of electronic cigarettes among youth. 

Public Health Domains

What is third hand smoke, and how does it impact each of the domains of Public Health?

Is Chikungunya a threat for the United States?

Follow the links to see how to apply type 1, type 2 and type 3 levels of evidence-based searching.


Epidemiology & Surveillance

Policy, Administration & Management

Health Promotion & Disease Prevention

Social & Behavioral Health

Environmental Health